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英汉对照《道德经》许渊冲翻译

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  该书是北京大学教授、著名翻译家许渊冲先生最新译著。《汉英对照道德经》采用汉英对照方式,将老子《道德经》81章以译文的方式表达,在翻译中,许先生以他独特的翻译理念和先进的翻译方法,在尽力保持古代汉语原文的意美、音美和形美基础上,将我国古代老子这位伟大思想家的著作思想传达,最大可能地展示了中华文化精髓。

许渊冲简介

  许渊冲,生于江西南昌。从事文学翻译长达六十余年,译作涵盖中、英、法等语种,翻译集中在中国古诗英译,形成韵体译诗的方法与理论,被誉为“诗译英法唯一人” ,北京大学教授,翻译家。在国内外出版中、英、法文著译六十本,包括《诗经》、《楚辞》、《李白诗选》、《西厢记》、《红与黑》、《包法利夫人》、《追忆似水年华》等中外名著。2014年8月2日许渊冲荣获国际翻译界最高奖项之一的“北极光”杰出文学翻译奖 ,系首位获此殊荣亚洲翻译家。

  第一章
  道可道,非常道;名可名,非常名。
  无名,天地之始;有名,万物之母。
  故常无欲,以观其妙;常有欲,以观其徼。
  此两者,同出而异名,同谓之玄。
  玄之又玄,众妙之门。
  Chapter I
  The divine law may be spoken of,
  but it is not the common law.
  Things may be named,
  but names are not the things.
  In the beginning heaven and earth are nameless;
  when named, all things become known.
  So we should be free from desires
  in order to understand the internal
  mystery of the divine law;
  and we should have desires
  in order to observe its external manifestations.
  Internal mystery and external manifestations
  come from the same origin,
  but have different names,
  They may be called essence.
  The essential of the essence
  is the key to the understanding of all mysteries.

   第二章
  天下皆知美之为美,斯恶已;皆知善之为善,斯不善已。
  故有无相生,难易相成,长短相形,高下相倾,音声相和,前后相随。
  是以圣人处无为之事,行不言之教,万物作焉而不辞,生而不有,为而不恃,功成而弗居。夫唯弗居,是以不去。
  Chapter 2
  If all men in the world know what is fair,
  then it is unfair.
  If all men know what is good,
  then it is not good.
  For "to be" and "not be" co-exist,
  There cannot be one without the other:
  without "difficult", there cannot be "easy";
  without "long", there cannot be "short";
  without "high", there cannot be "low";
  without sound, there can be no voice;
  without "before", there cannot be "after";
  The contrary complement each other.
  Therefore the sage does everything without interference,
  teaches everyone without persuasion,
  and lets everything begin uninitiated
  and grow unpossessed.
  Everything is done without being his deed,
  and succeeds without being his success.
  Only when success belongs to nobody
  does it belong to everyone.
 
  第三章
  不尚贤,使民不争;不贵难得之货,使民不为盗;不见可欲,使民心不乱。
  是以圣人之治,虚其心,实其腹;弱其志,强其骨。常使民无知无欲,使夫智不敢为也。为无为,则无不治。
  Chapter 3
  Honor on man
  as that none would contend for honor.
  Value no rare goods
  so that none would steal or rob.
  Display nothing desirable
  lest people be tempted and disturbed.
  Therefore the sage rules
  by purifying people's soul,
  filing their bellies,
  weakening their wills
  and strengthening their bones.
  He always keeps them knowledgeless
  and desireless
  so that the clever dare not interfere.
  Where there is not interference,
  there is order.
  
   第四章
  道冲而用之,或不盈。
  渊兮,似万物之宗。(挫其锐,解其纷,和其光,同其尘。)湛兮,似或存。
  吾不知谁之子,象帝之先。
  Chapter 4
  The divine law is formless,
  its use is inexhaustible.
  It is endless,
  whence come all things
  where the sharp is blunted,
  the knots are united,
  the glare is softened,
  all look like dust.
  Apparent,
  it seems to exist.
  I do not know when it came;
  it seems to exist before God.
 
  第五章
  天地不仁,以万物为刍狗;圣人不仁,以百姓为刍狗。
  天地之间,其犹橐龠!虚而不屈,动而愈出。
  多言数穷,不如守中。
  Chapter 5
  Heaven and earth are ruthless,
  they treat everything as straw or dog.
  The sage is ruthless,
  he treats everyone as straw or dog.
  Are not heaven and earth
  like a pair of bellows?
  Empty, it won't be exhausted;
  Forced, more air will come out.
  If more is said than done,
  it would be better to take the mean.

  第六章
  谷神不死,是谓玄牝。
  玄牝之门,是谓天地根。
  绵绵若存,用之不勤。
  Chapter 6
  The vale spirit never dies,
  it is the mysterious womb.
  The door to the mysterious womb
  is the origin of heaven and earth.
  It lasts as if it ever existed;
  when used, it is inexhaustible.
 
  第七章
  天长地久,天地所以能长且久者,以其不自生,故能长生。
  是以圣人后其身而身先,外其身而身存。非以其无私邪?故能成其私。
  Chapter 7
  Heaven and earth exist for ever.
  The reason why their exist so long
  is not that they want to exist;
  where there is no want,
  to be and not be are one.
  Therefore for the sage
  the last becomes the first,
  the out becomes the in.
  As he is selfless,
  all becomes his self.
 
  第八章
  上善若水,水善利万物而不争。处众人之所恶,故几于道。
  居善地,心善渊,与善仁,言善信,正善治,事善能,动善时。
  夫唯不争,故无尤。
  Chapter 8
  The highest good is like water
  Water benefits everything by giving
  without taking or contending.
  It likes the place others dislike,
  so it follows closely the divine law.
  The place should be low,
  the mind broad,
  the gifts kind,
  the speech trustworthy,
  the rule sound,
  the deed well-done,
  the action timely.
  Without contention,
  a man is blameless.

  第九章
  持而盈之,不如其已;揣而锐之,不可长保。
  金玉满堂,莫之能守。富贵而骄,自遗其咎。
  功遂身退,天之道也!
  Chapter 9
  Don't hold your fill
  but refrain from excess.
  A whetted and sharpened sword
  cannot be sharp for ever.
  A houseful of gold and jade
  cannot be safeguarded.
  Arrogance of wealth and power
  will bring ruin.
  Withdrawal after success
  conforms to the divine law.

   第十章
  载营魄抱一,能无离乎?
  专气致柔,能婴儿乎?
  修除玄览,能无疵乎?
  爱民治国,能无智乎?
  天门开阖,能为雌乎?
  明白四达,能无知乎?
  (生之畜之,生而不有,为而不恃,长而不宰。是为玄德。)
  Chapter 10
  Can body and soul united
  never sever?
  Can the controlled breath be
  softened as a baby's?
  Can the purified mental mirror be
  free from blemish?
  Can a people-loving ruler not interfere in the state affairs?
  Can the lower doors not open and close
  as the upper doors in the heaven?
  Is it possible to understand and make
  understand without knowledge?
  Give life and make live,
  but lay no claim,
  benefit but do not interfere,
  lead but do not rule,
  Such is the mysterious virtue.


   第十一章
  三十辐共一毂,当其无,有车之用。
  埏埴以为器,当其无,有器之用。
  凿户牖以为室,当其无,有室之用。
  故有之以为利,无之以为用。
  Chapter 11
  Thirty spokes radiate from a hub.
  When there is nothing in the hub,
  the wheel can roll.
  Turn clay to make a vessel.
  When empty,
  the vessel can be used.
  Build a room with doors and windows.
  When empty,
  the room can be used as dwelling.
  When there is something, it is beneficial;
  When empty, it is useful.

   第十二章
  五色令人目盲,五音令人耳聋,五味令人口爽,驰骋畋猎令人心发狂,难得之货令人行妨。
  是以圣人为腹不为目,故去彼取此。
  Chapter 12
  The fiver colors may confuse the eye.
  The five sounds may deafen the ear.
  The five tastes may spoil the palate.
  Riding and hunting may madden the mind.
  Rare goods may tempt one to do evil.
  Therefore the sage satisfies the belly rather than the eye.
  He prefers the former to the latter.

   第十三章
  宠辱若惊,贵大患若身。
  何谓宠辱若惊?宠为下,得之若惊,失之若惊是谓宠辱若惊。
  何谓贵大患若身?吾所以有大患者,为吾有身;及吾无身,吾有何患。
  故贵以身为天下,若可寄天下;爱以身为天下,若可托天下。
  Chapter 13
  Praise and blame disturb the mind;
  Fortune and misfortune affect the body.
  Why is the mind disturbed?
  Praise and blame are like ups and downs.
  The mind is troubled with rise and fall.
  So is it troubled by praise and blame.
  How can fortune and misfortune affect the body?
  Because we have a body.
  If we had not a body,
  how can we be affected?
  If you value the world as your body,
  then the world may confide in you.
  If you love the world as your body,
  then the world may be entrusted to you.


   第十四章
  视之不见名曰夷,听之不闻名曰希,抟之不得名曰微。此三者不可致诘,故混而为一。其上不徼,其下不昧,绳绳不可名,复归於无物。是谓无状之状,无物之象,是谓惚恍。迎之不见其首,随之不见其後。执古之道以御今之有。能知古始,是谓道纪。
  Chapter 14
  What cannot be seen is invisible,
  What cannot be heard is inaudible,
  What cannot be touched is intangible.
  These there, unfathomable,
  blend into one.
  Up, it is not bright;
  down, it is not dark.
  Like a nameless endless string,
  it ends in nothing.
  It is a formless form,
  an image of nothing.
  It seems to be and not to be.
  Before it, you cannot see its front;
  after it, you cannot see its rear.
  Ruling over the present with the law of the past,
  you can know the beginning of antiquity.
  Such is the rule of the divine law.

  第十五章
  古之善为道者,微妙玄通,深不可识。夫唯不可识,故强为之容。豫兮其若冬涉川;犹兮其若畏四邻;俨兮其若容;涣兮其若冰之将释;敦兮其若朴;旷兮其若谷;混兮其若浊;孰能浊以静之?徐清。孰能安以动之?徐生。保此道者不欲盈。夫唯不盈,故能蔽而新成。
  Chapter XV
  The ancients followed the divine law,
  subtle, delicate, mysterious, communicative,
  too deep to be understood.
  Not objectively understood,
  it can only be subjectively described.
  The ancients were circumspect as crossing a frozen river,
  watchful as fearful of hostile neighbors,
  reserved as an unacquainted guest,
  softened as melting ice,
  natural as uncarved block,
  vacant as a vale,
  and obscure as a muddy stream.
  Who could calm the turbid water?
  It could be slowly turned clean.
  Who could stir the stale water?
  It could be slowly revived.
  Those who follow the divine law
  will not be full to the brim.
  Only those who do not go to excess
  can renew what is worn out.


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